Deworming isn't the only way to control internal parasites in small ruminants. In fact, having to deworm a lot of animals may be an indication that current management is inadequate and that changes are necessary. There are many management practices which will help to minimize the number of animals that require anthelmintic treatment.


Changing dogma: changes to parasite management in the 2000's to keep your dewormers working, Dr. Joan Burke and Dr. Jim Morgan [Timely Topics, March 2015].

Controlling worms in dairy goats: a challenge; by Steve Hart, Extension Goat Specialist, Langston University [Timely Topic, August 2012].



How to grow worms (or not); by Steve Hart, Langston University.  [Timely Topic, March 2017]

Late summer parasite management strategies in goats; Ken Andries, Kentucky State University [Timely Topic, August 2013].

Managing the barber pole worm; part 2 in a six part series on worm control in goats. Steve Hart, Langston University. Originally published in Goat Rancher Magazine [April 2008]

Management of the barber pole worm in sheep and goats in the Southern U.S.; J.M. Burke; USDA, ARS, Dale Bumpers Small Farms Research Center, Booneville, AR [August 2006].


Organic Management of Internal Parasites.  Linda Coffey, ATTRA-NCAT, Arkansas [Timely Topic, August 2017].

Relatively low-cost, easy fixes to decrease gastrointestinal loads on the farm; Jean-Marie Luginbuhl, North Carolina State University [Timely Topic, April 2013].

Tips for preventing internal parasites; Margo Hale & Linda Coffee, NCAT-ATTRA [Timely Topic, April 2015]

Understanding the Risk Factors for Infection is Essential in Developing a Sustainable Parasite Management Plan; Richard Ehrhardt, Michigan State University [Timely Topic,  November 2016].

When deworming isn't enough; Niki Whitley, Fort Valley State University [Timely Topic, July 2017].


Working with a veterinarian; Linda Coffey, NCAT-ATTRA [Timely Topic, November 2015].

Conference Proceedings

A New Paradigm for the Control of Gastrointestinal Nematodes in the Tropics. J.F.L. Torres-Acosta et al. 10th Anniversary Conference of the American Consortium for Small Ruminant Parasite Control [May 2013].

Parasite Control in Dairy Sheep. Susan Schoenian, University of Maryland Extension. 18th Annual Dairy Sheep Symposium of North America. [October 2012].

External Links
Fact Sheets

Best Management Practices for Controlling Internal Parasites in Small Ruminants: Nutritional Effects on Parasites. Steve Hart, Langston University [October 2018].

Managing internal parasites in sheep and goats; Margo Hale; National Center for Appropriate Technology/The National Sustainable Agriculture Information Service (ATTRA) [2006, updated April 2015].


Managing internal parasitism in sheep and goats; Kate Hepworth and Mike Neary, Purdue University; and Terry Hutchins, University of Kentucky [August 2006].

Steps to effective and sustainable internal parasite management; Will Getz and Susan Schoenian; Let's Grow With Two Plus, American Sheep Industry Association [2011].

Sustainable control of internal parasites in small ruminant production; Margo Hale and Linda Coffey; and Southern Consortium for Small Ruminant Parasite Control [April 2011].


Tips for managing parasites. Linda Coffey; NCAT-ATTRA [April 2015].

Tips for preventing parasites. Linda Coffey; NCAT-ATTRA [April 2015].


Tips for working with a veterinarian; Linda Coffey. NCAT-ATTRA [April 2015].


Journal Articles

A comparison of two integrated approaches of controlling nematode parasites in small ruminants; J. Miller, J. Burke, T. Terrill, and M. Kearney; Veterinary Parasitology [June 2011].

Effects of alternative weaning strategies on lamb health and performance; B.J. Campbell, A.N. Pullin, MD Pairis-Garcia, J.S. McCutcheon, G.D. Lowe, M.R. Campler, and F.L. Fluharty. Small Ruminant Journal [September 2017].

Experiences with integrated concepts for the control of Haemonchus contortus in sheep and goats in the United States; T. Terrill, J. Miller, J. Burke, and J. Mosjidis; Veterinary Parasitology [March 2012].

Meeting Abstracts

Influence of season of lambing on gastrointestinal nematode infection of lambs; J. Burke and J. Miller. Southern Section of the American Society of Animal Science [February 2011].

Handbook for the control of internal parasites of sheep; University of Guelph, Canada [2010].

Internal parasite (worm) control; Sheep 201: A Beginner's Guide to Raising Sheep; by Susan Schoenian; University of Maryland Extension [2012].

Northeast Small Ruminant Parasite Control Program. University of Rhode Island.


SCOPS: Sustainable worm control strategies for sheep (UK)

Sustainable worm control strategies for sheep 4th edition: a technical manual for veterinary surgeons and advisors; K.A. Abbott, A. Taylor, L.A. Stubbings (SCOPS). [June 2012].


WormBoss: Australia's sheep worm control resource