Biology and General Information


Many parasites can infect sheep, goats, and camelids. An understanding of their biology and life cycles will aid in developing successful control programs.


Coccidiosis: deadly scourge of young lambs and kids. Susan Schoenian, University of Maryland Extension [2011].


Coccidiosis in lambs and kids. Dr. Seyedmehdi Mobini. Fort Valley State University. [Timely Topic, May 2015].

Disgusting tapeworms! Dr. Anne Zajac, Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine. [Timely Topic, September 2014].

Haemonchus contortus and camelids. Dr. Lisa Williamson, University of Georgia. [Timely Topic, April 2014].


Haemonchus contortus thrives in Upper Midwestern U.S.
Dr. Richard Erhhardt, Michigan State University. [Timely Topic, June 2013].

The impact of parasite infection on small ruminant productivity. Dr. Dahlia O'Brien, Virginia State University [Timely Topic, May 201].

Meet the Enemy. Part 1 in a six part series on worm control in goats. Dr. Steve Hart, Langston University. Originally published in Goat Rancher Magazine [March 2008].

Periparturient Egg Rise. Susan Schoenian, Sheep & Goat Specialist, University of Maryland Extension [Timely Topic, December 2012].


Same Problem:  Different Part of the World. Enrique Nelson Escobar, University of Maryland Eastern Shore [Timely Topic, February 2017].


White Eyes and Bottle Jaw:  Are There Zebras?  Dr. Anne Zajac, Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine [Timely Topic, August 2016]

Conference Proceedings

Biology of parasites. Dr. Anne M. Zajac, Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine [May 2013].

External Links


Coccidiosis in lambs. Joe S. Rook, DVM, Michigan State University.

Deer Worm Treatment Protocols. Cornell University.

Life cycles of parasites that infect goats (animations). Karin Christensen. The Biology of the Goat.

Meningeal worms (brain worms) and liver flukes (deer flukes): two uncommon internal parasites. Joe S. Rook, DVM, and M. Kopcha, DVM; Michigan State University.

P. tenius - the white-tailed deer parasite. M. Kopcha, DVM, J.S. Rook, DVM, and D. Hostetler, DVM; Michigan State University.

Worm Parasite Atlas. Guide to Internal Parasites of Ruminants. (Intervet). Merck Animal Health


Fact Sheets

Best Management Practices for Controlling Internal Parasites in Small Ruminants: Management of Coccidia. Kwame Matthews, Delaware State University [March 2019]


Coccidiosis: Symptoms, Prevention, and Treatment in Sheep, Goats, and Calves. Linda Coffey, ATTRA-NCAT [December 2014].

Deer Worm Fact Sheet.  Cornell Sheep & Goat Program and Cornell Ambulatory Veterinary Services. [May 2018].


Managing internal parasites: Success Stories.  Linda Coffey. NCAT-ATTRA [April 2015].


Tips for working with a veterinarian. Linda Coffey. NCAT-ATTRA [April 2015].

Parasite Biology Impacts Control.  Anne Zajac. Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine [Best Management Practices, September 2018].